Clinical and biochemical markers of visceral adipose tissue activity

Clinical and biochemical markers of visceral adipose tissue activity: Body mass index, visceral adiposity index, leptin, adiponectin, and matrix metalloproteinase‑3. Correlation with Gleason patterns 4 and 5 at prostate biopsy

Vincenzo Serretta, Alberto Abrate, Simone Siracusano, Cristina Scalici Gesolfo, Marco Vella, Fabrizio Di Maida, Antonina Cangemi, Giuseppe Cicero, Elisabetta Barresi1, Chiara Sanfilippo2 Department of Surgical, Oncological and Stomatological Sciences, University of Palermo, 1Department of Human Pathology,
University of Palermo, 2Stastistics, GSTU Foundation, Palermo, Italy

Abstract

Context: The correlation between aggressive prostate cancer and obesity mainly based on body mass index (BMI) and pathology after surgery remains controversial. Aims: The aim of the study was to correlate BMI, visceral adiposity index (VAI), and the plasmatic levels of leptin, adiponectin, and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), and biomarkers of adipose tissue function, with the detection of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 at biopsy. Subjects and Methods: Consecutive patients with prostate cancer at 12-core transrectal biopsy were enrolled. BMI, waist circumference (WC), blood samples to evaluate the plasmatic levels of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), adiponectin, leptin, and MMP-3 were obtained immediately before biopsy. The VAI was calculated according to the formula: WC/(39.68 + [1.88 × BMI]) × TG/1.03 × 1.31/HDL. Results: One hundred and forty-nine patients were entered. The median PSA, BMI, and VAI were 10.0 ng/ml, 27.6 kg/m2, and 4.6, respectively. Gleason patterns 4 or 5 were detected in 68 (45.6%) patients; in 15 (41.7%), 31 (44.9%), and 22 (50.0%) among normal weight, overweight, and obese patients, respectively (P = 0.55). The statistical analysis did not show any significant correlation between BMI, VAI, the plasmatic levels of leptin, adiponectin, MMP-3, and the detection of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 at biopsy. A statistically significant association emerged with older age (P = 0.017) and higher PSA values (P = 0.02). Conclusion: We did not find any association between BMI, VAI, the plasmatic levels of adiponectin, leptin, and MMP-3 and the detection of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 at prostate biopsy.

Keywords: Adiponectin, body mass index, Gleason pattern, leptin, matrix metalloproteinase-3, obesity, prostate cancer, visceral adiposity index